: Differend: Phrases in Dispute (Theory and History of Literature) ( ): Jean-Francois Lyotard: Books. This original study examines Jean-François Lyotard’s philosophical concept of the differend and details its unexplored implications for literature. it provides a. Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend Jacob M. Held Marquette University Department of Philosophy Coughlin Hall P.O. Box

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It becomes disjunctive, distinguishing this from not-this. So given the fact that one must link onto the phrases idioms may provide better linking alternatives than those alre ady in existence.

However, if the dominant dis course were able to express the original wrong, then a differend would never hav e occurred in the first place. Toward the Postmodern, ed.

In relation to research, this means the production of new ideas by going against or outside of established norms, of making new moves in language games, changing the rules of language games and inventing new games.

The term “Inhuman” has two meanings for Lyotard. Part of his work in The Postmodern Condition can be read as a defence of narrative knowledge from the increasing dominance of scientific knowledge.

After his break with Marxism and rejection of totalising theory, he sought to develop a theory that will take account of multiple and different forces and desires at work in any political or social situation, from the writing of theory to revolutionary politics to global economics. Every phrase presents a universe, composed of the following four elements or, as Lyotard calls them, instances: He had lost belief in the legitimacy of Marxism as a totalising theory, and returned to the study and writing of philosophy.

The vifferend bound up with a gen re of pyotard determine the linkings between phrases. One cannot eliminate the violence done by the necessary lyotarx of language, but one can choose a self-reflective path throu gh language in an attempt to avoid future violence and resolve current wrongs.

The Differend – Wikipedia

Between them lies the differend, an absolute difference which cannot be reconciled. For Lyotard, these questions cannot be differenx from within these sciences themselves. For Lyotard, there is no affirmative region, no pure outside to nihilism. It is perhaps misleading of Lyotard to say that paganism is judgement without criteria; for it is judgement only without universal criteria. How to cite this entry. Phrase regimens fix the instances of the phrase universe within a concatenation; these regimens are syntactic types of phrases such as the cognitive, the descriptive, the prescriptive, the interrogative, the evaluative, and lyotsrd on.


If new p ossibilities can be opened up, then greater freedom can be afforded to everybody involved in the language community.

Jean François Lyotard

In “Algeria Evacuated,” written after the end of the occupation, Lyotard regretfully asks why a socialist revolution did not take place, concluding that the social and political upheavals resulted in an opportunistic struggle for power rather than a class-based action. As Lyotard describes the nature of the problem, the reality of the damage is the burden of the plaintiff to illustrate. This also means that there is no “correct” way of concatenating a phrase, no correct phrase regimen to be employed in following one phrase with another.

This reduction of knowledge to that which is easily translatable and understandable, of course, is what drives globalization, and the leading economies, as Lyotard notes, will not be those engaged in manufacturing traditional commodities but instead those created and utilized through modern computing.

Towards a Postmodern PhilosophyCambridge: Lyotard follows Friedrich Nietzsche — in arguing that there is no objective science or forms of knowledge that are not based in a desire or what Nietzsche called a will for power, a point that Lyotard will make by looking at the desire or libido behind the so-called scientific works of the later Marx.

These very corporate and systems-based interests vie today to seize and control these new modes of production, as Lyotard would have predicted, but out of The Postmodern Condition came new concerns that still plague the culture today.

He rejects the idea of a master-discourse later called a metanarrative that is thought to provide the basis for judgement in all lyotarrd. Thus he advocates the legitimation of knowledge by paralogy as a form of legitimation that would satisfy both the desire for justice and the desire for the unknown.

Lyotard argues that this is in fact what takes place in scientific research, despite the imposition of the performativity criterion of legitimation. For this reason, both books will be critiqued as being irresponsibly anarchist.


As he reports in an autobiographical essay that opens Peregrinations: Adami, Arakawa, Buren, ed. Indeed, diffeeend says, it imposes a sentiment, if not an obligation:. The book is divided into two parts: As Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt point out, phrasing oneself in terms of the dom inant discourse can be more liberating than the post-modern alternative, namely Lyotard’s paganism.

Some forms of art can reinforce structured systems of meaning, but the special feature of avant-garde art is to disrupt expectations, conventions, and established orders of reception.

Lyotard believes that knowledge is becoming so important an economic factor, in fact, that he suggests that one day wars will be waged over the control of information. Here is how Lyotard famously defines the postmodern more positively than being merely a disbelief in metanarratives: Lyotard offers a number of examples of differends: Sim, Stuart, Lyotard and the Inhuman Cambridge: In a litigation, the plaintiff’s wrong can be presented.

This equivocation means that the meaning of the phrase is not fixed in the initial presentation, and only becomes fixed through what Lyotard calls situation. The nature of discourse precludes the communication of this injustice.

Lyotard’s philosophy of language and justice is most fully developed through the concept of the differend, in the book of the same name. The ‘force’ of the phrase is judged by the standard of a genre’s r ules, the same phrase is weak or strong depending upon what is at stake.

Jean-Francois Lyotard, Differend: Phrases in Dispute – PhilPapers

Writing ljotard EventManchester: In other words, the presentation of the phrase event is not able to be accurately represented by any particular situation. The plaintiff, on the other hand, does have the ability to phrase the nature of the damage done and differdnd remuneration, resti tution and so on.

When the differend is expressed one cannot claim that there is one true meaning, there i s only the meaning imparted by the genre of discourse in which it is implanted.